How Long Does It Take For Advil To Work?

Pain is that one thing no one can save himself or herself from. In today’s fast-paced world, where no one has time to take care of their health, where everyone is busy in chasing their dreams, where everyone wants to reach the heights of their career, they do not have time to think about anything. Moreover, there is no harm in chasing your dreams and thinking about reaching to the heights of your career. But at the same time it is not right that you neglect your health. Therefore, whenever you feel pain in your body, or you feel that this pain is becoming the obstacle in your path of progress, here is a superb solution for it. Just go with a tablet of Advil. Now you will ask what is Advil, why you should take, and most importantly, how long does it take for Advil to work? Let us look at all the answers one by one.

how long does it take for Advil to work

What Is Advil?

Before looking into the various important aspects of the medicine, let us first understand what Advil is? It is a form of Ibuprofen and is used to get the effective and instant relief from almost all types of pains. The primary role of Advil is to reduce the inflammation, pain and fever from the human body. The reason of these pains and inflammation can be because of many reasons. Some of which include, toothache, menstrual cramps, pain in the back, headache, arthritis or even from the minor injury. The most important thing you need to keep in mind before taking or giving any dose of Advil is that you cannot consume the tablet if you are less than two years of age. However, if it is urgent to give Advil to someone who is less than two years of age, please take the advice of your doctor or the healthcare professional.

The reason for this advice is that there are many dangerous and negative side effects that can affect our body organs severely and can even cause damage to them. We will have a deeper look into the various side effects of Advil later in the article. Moreover, we will also understand the correct way of consuming Advil and the normal doses that a person can have, and under what circumstances we should avoid Advil.

Factors To Consider Before Consuming Advil

Advil is not an ordinary tablet; there are many factors that you must consider before consuming even its minutest dose. Let us have a look on those factors.

Sorry to say this, but if you do not take Advil in proper circumstances and with proper procedure, it may even cost you your life. According to the various medically proved researches, Advil increases the risk of fatal heart attacks and can even cause strokes in you if you are taking doses of Advil for the longer times. If you recently have undergone or are going for the heart bypass surgery, CABG, also known as coronary artery bypass graft, you must completely avoid even a single dose of Advil.

Not only your heart but also your stomach is not safe from Advil. Over consumption or unnecessary consumption of Advil may severely damage your stomach and can even cause the intestinal bleeding. The worst part about all these situations is that they may trigger without informing you or giving you any signs of their origin. Hence, it is highly recommended that whether you are suffering from any of the aforementioned problems or not, always consult with the pharmacist, your doctor or the healthcare professional before taking the smallest dose of Advil.

Here is a clear list of the factors that you must look for before going for the dose of Advil. Totally avoid Advil if you have:

• A heart disease or the history of heart disease, congestive heart failure
• Asthma
• History of stroke, heart attack or of blood clot
• Polyps in your nose
• The problem of blood pressure
• Some disease of liver or kidney, and many more.

Moreover, apart from the aforementioned factors, if you are pregnant, especially if you are in the last three months of your pregnancy, you must avoid Advil, as it may cause harm to the unborn child. Therefore, if any time during your pregnancy period you suffer from pain, do not go for Advil directly, and instead take the advice from the pharmacist, doctor or the healthcare professional. As there are numerous alternatives to Advil present in the market, which are safer than the Advil.

How Much Advil Is Safe?

Now comes the most important part, the correct dosage of Advil. While consuming Advil, make sure that you do not increase or decrease the recommended amount of dosage for you. If you are confused with the dosage amount, it is always advisable that you consult with the pharmacist, doctor or the healthcare professional. If you overdose the Advil, your stomach and intestine may have to face severe damage.

The prescribed dosage of Advil for a normal adult is 800 mg per dose or 3200 mg per day. If we convert this amount into a number of doses, it comes around four doses per day. However, it is advisable that you take the smallest amount of Advil, no matter what the problem is. Moreover, if you are planning to give Advil to children, then the dose must be in accordance with the weight of your child. However, it is always best to consult with the doctor or healthcare professional.

How Long Does It Take For Advil To Work?

As Advil is available in the various forms, the timings of their work are also different. For example, if you have taken the liquid version of Advil, the effect is so fast, and you can get relief in just 30 minutes. On the other hand, if you have taken the tablet, it may take up to 50 minutes to get the relief in your pain.

Where Do Crocodiles Live?

Crocodiles belong to the family Crocodylidae. There are around 23 species of crocodiles throughout the world. The word crocodile has its origin from Greek word for lizard. Unlike other living creatures, crocodiles have negligibly evolved since the age of dinosaurs. Crocodiles are an important species in the food chain. They prey upon fish, small mammals, birds, alligators, small crocodiles and other few creatures in the water bodies. Their number is rapidly declining due to the destruction of their habitats and uncontrolled poaching. Crocodiles are declared endangered since August 2014. To understand more about the crocodiles we will have to know- Where do crocodiles live.

where do crocodiles liveCharacteristics Of Crocodiles

Crocodiles are successful predators with streamlined bodies. They are grey-olive or grey-green in color. They have a slender, long and V-shaped snout. A crocodile can not only swim very fast, but can also tuck its feet sideways while swimming to reduce the resistance of water. The ventral side, i.e. the belly and sides, of the crocodile is very smooth, while the dorsal side is thick and rugged, and has large scales. Crocodiles have 80 teeth and are classified as polyphyodonts. Crocodiles have cerebral cortex and their hearts are four chambered. Crocodiles release heat through their mouths, as they do not have sweat glands. Their mouths are open when they sleep.


Classification Of Crocodiles

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Reptilia
  • Order: Crocodylia
  • Family: Crocodylidae
  • GeneraCrocodylus, Mecistopsand Osteolaemus
  • Species: There are 13 species: acutus(American crocodile), C. porosus (saltwater crocodile), C. niloticus (Nile crocodile), M. cataphractus (African slender-snouted crocodile), C. rhombifer (Cuban crocodile), O. tetraspis (African dwarf crocodile)

Crocodile Habitat And Distribution

Crocodiles are found throughout Asia, Australia, Africa and America. They reside in various kinds of habitats. Mostly, the crocodiles live in shoreline habitats. They prefer living in shallow and deep waters. The habitat and distribution patterns of crocodile depend upon population density, population class, size of crocodiles and human encroachments.

Where Do Crocodiles Live?

Usually, crocodiles live near salty water. Crocodiles can live in water, as well as on land. But they need to stay close to a water body. Crocodiles are very dangerous. In case of an encounter with a crocodile, you should run away from a water body, as far as possible. The largest population of American crocodiles occurs in the Dominican Republic‘s Laco Enriquillo. It is a hyper saline and landlocked lake and is 130 meters below sea level.

Where Do Freshwater Crocodiles Live?

Freshwater crocodiles are generally found in Western Australia and Queensland, Northern Territory. Mainly, they will inhabit rivers, wetlands, creeks and billabongs. Freshwater crocodiles can live in the waters where the saltwater crocodiles cannot survive. Hence, they are found in Kakadu National Park and Katherine Gorge, where there are minimum chances of their coming in direct contact with salt water crocodiles.

Where Do Saltwater Crocodiles Live?

Saltwater crocodiles are widespread throughout India. They are also found in Western Australia, Northern Australia and near the Northern Territory, Queensland. During summers, they migrate towards the southern tip of Northern Queensland. During wet season, they inhabit freshwater swamps like rivers and tropical waters.

What Do Crocodiles Eat?

Crocodiles are very skilful predators. They eat fish, reptiles, birds, mammals, molluscs, crustaceans, amphibians and may occasionally eat small crocodiles too. Different types of crocodiles prey on different animals. In short, crocodiles eat all the animals that come across their way. They eat deers, cows, wild boars, small elephant, fish, gazelles, carrion, dingos, water buffaloes, wildebeest, kangaroos and human beings. It is also discovered that crocodiles may eat sharks, occasionally. Crocodiles have very acidic stomachs, so they can digest horns, bones and hooves too.

How Long Do Crocodiles Live?

Crocodiles have an average lifespan for up to 70 years. It is recorded, that a crocodile in a zoo of Russia died at the age of 115 years, in 1997. It is very difficult to measure the age of a crocodile due to many factors. Generally, the age of crocodiles is measured by lamellar growth rings and teeth and mouth. This method cannot give the age of any crocodile accurately. In another method for measuring the age of a crocodile, it can be tagged at the time of birth and the record should be kept until its death. This is not a very accurate method too. “Mr. Freshie”, a crocodile that was rescued by Steve Irwin and Bob Irwin is believed to have lived up to an age of 120-140 years, in an Australian zoo.

What sounds do crocodiles make for communication amongst themselves and with other animals?

  • Peeping – When the young ones are about to hatch from the eggs, they make a peeping or a chirping sound. After this, the female excavates the nest and transfers the hatchlings into water. For several months, they remain in group, protected by the female.
  • Threat call – It is a kind of hissing sound and can be classified as a coughing sound too.
  • Distress call – The young crocodiles make a high pitched sound when they want to indicate danger or attack.
  • Hatching call – A female makes a peculiar sound after laying eggs to inform other crocodiles about it.
  • Bellowing – A low-pitched sound called ‘bellowing’ is made by male crocodiles to advertise their presence. It occurs in spring, most often.

Facts About Crocodiles

  • Though crocodiles come under the classification of reptiles, they resemble birds and dinosaurs more.
  • The largest saltwater crocodile ever recorded was 28 feet long and weighed 2,870 pounds. It was shot in Queensland, Australia in 1957.
  • Crocodiles cool down themselves by sleeping with their mouth open.
  • Crocodiles can swim with a speed of 32 kph.
  • On land, they can run only a short distance, i.e. with about 11 kph of speed.
  • They can hold their breath under water for 1 hour.
  • Crocodiles can apply a pressure up to 5000 pounds through their jaws.
  • Hunting of crocodiles for their skin to trade is illegal.
  • Crocodylus acutus is a species of crocodiles that is included in IUCN Red list.
  • Crocodiles are believed to have appeared 240 million years ago, along with dinosaurs.


How Many Teeth Do Sharks Have?

Sharks are fierce and have dreadful teeth. When you are in on an adventurous trip, you are always careful whether a shark is seen around. What makes shark so ferocious is its teeth. They can tear the skin and organs of any living organism. You might be wondering, “How many teeth do sharks have?” Shark’s teeth are a delight to read about, as they have a variety of properties. In this article, we have tried to compile all the relevant facts about shark teeth to keep the exploration interesting for you. Let us begin.

How Many Rows Of Teeth Do Shark Have?

How Many Teeth Do Sharks Have

The number and rows of teeth in shark may differ from species to species in sharks. The number of rows in each jaw may vary from 5 to 15, depending upon the species. Shark teeth are not strong like human teeth because they do not have roots, at all. So each tooth falls in about one week. Every time a shark bites on a big creature, it loses several teeth.

Once the teeth fall, the developing teeth replace them. Generally, a shark has about fifty working teeth in its mouth, at a time. Also, the teeth at different stages of development, present in the mouth of a shark, are approximately 300. Due to the higher rate of loss of teeth, the sharks have more than 50,000 teeth in their whole lifetime.

Types And Functions Of The Teeth:

Different sharks can be classified on the basis of the teeth they have and the functions such teeth perform in consuming their prey. They are as follows:

Needle-like Teeth

Sharks that have needle-like teeth, generally feed on small and medium fishes, or on smaller sharks. These teeth are designed to grip their narrow and slippery meals. Bull sharks and blue sharks have such teeth. These sharks feed on flounder, squids, stingray etc.

Dense Flattened Teeth

Such teeth are helpful in crushing the prey effectively. Sharks having such teeth can easily prey on crustaceans and bivalves. Angel sharks and nurse sharks have such teeth. Their flat teeth make cutting open the shells of their prey. Generally, such fishes reside at the bottom of the ocean floor due to the abundance of their prey, in this region.

Triangular Upper Teeth & Pointed Lower Teeth

Such a combination of teeth in some sharks helps them to cut large prey into smaller segments, which will make the swallowing of the meal easier. The Great White sharks have such teeth. They prey mostly on other sharks, dolphins, sea lions and small whales.

Non-functional Teeth

The sharks having such non-functional teeth feed only on planktons. They only filter the tiny prey through their teeth. Whale shark and basking shark are such sharks.

Interesting Facts About Shark:

  • Sharks do not have roots in their teeth for attachment to the gums.
  • All sharks lose one tooth a week, at least.
  • Most of the times shark teeth are stuck to their prey or come out while eating. So they lose their teeth.
  • In most of the animals, only lower jaw can move. But in sharks, both jaws are movable.
  • The skin of gums in sharks acts like a conveyer belt which arranges an easy replacement of the lost teeth by the developing one.
  • Generally, any teeth will be replaced within one day in sharks.
  • Sharks have 5 to 15 rows of teeth in each jaw, in general. But some sharks like the bull shark can have up to 50 rows, in each jaw.
  • You can easily gather shark teeth in some oceans. But it is illegal in many countries to keep shark teeth without a licence.
  • The teeth of the sharks fossilize after the death of the shark and decomposition of its body.
  • A shark tooth takes around 10,000 years to fossilize. Till now, the most commonly fossilized shark teeth found were from the Cenozoic era, which occurred 65,000 years ago.
  • Venice in Florida is called the “shark capital of the world.”
  • Surprisingly, sharks have a complete set of teeth when they are born.
  • The shape of the teeth in shark is determined by the types of their prey. For instance, tiger sharks possess piercing teeth that can tear the flesh of animals, while zebra sharks have flat and dense teeth to feed on creatures like molluscs.
  • Whale sharks have up to 3000 little teeth, but their use is very negligent. They mostly feed by filtering their prey through their gills.
  • The megalodon sharks have teeth ranging from 31/2 to seven inches in length. They can even be more than a pound in weight.
  • It was recently discovered that shark tooth also contains fluorides.
  • Cavities do not occur in shark’s teeth.
  • Dentin is a soft mineral that is present in the teeth of the sharks, as well as humans.
  • Compared to human teeth the coating of shark teeth is less water-soluble. Their teeth are also acid resistant.
  • In terms of hardness, shark teeth and human teeth are similar.
  • In ancient times, shark teeth were used as tools and weapons by human beings.
  • Sharks have a very strong sense of smell, which makes them such successful predators. It is discovered that two third of their brains work to sense smell.
  • Most of the sharks have a mirror-like layer over their eyes, which help them to have a better view in the clear water and murky water.
  • The “lateral line” is a line of canals in a shark’s body that allows it to feel vibrations with the help of water.
  • Sharks can also sense electrical coming field from their prey’s body through an unusual organ known as “ampullae of Lorenzini.”
  • Common types of shark are Zebra, Wobbegong, White Tip Reef, Whale, Tiger, Thresher, Spiny Dogfish, Sandtiger, Nurse, Mako, Hammerhead, Great White, Goblin, Cookiecutter, Bull, Blue, Blacktip, Blacktip Reef, Baskin and Angel Sharks.

We hope that this article provided you satisfactory information on “How many teeth do sharks have?” If you want to share any other interesting facts about sharks, feel free to drop them in the comment box given below.

How Many Stomachs Does A Cow Have?

The cow is one of the most useful animals that are present on the earth today. The cow is really an amazing creature and has hidden many awesome facts inside her body that you may not have any idea about. You may have seen this amazing creature numerous times calmly grazing and mowing into the green fields and not giving attention to any one passing by. Among many amazing facts, one awesome fact is about the cow’s stomach. By now, you may be thinking that they also have a single stomach like you and me; however, the truth is something else. Now, there must be one question running into your mind. It is that how many stomachs does a cow have? So, the answer to this amazing question is here presented in this article. Hence, just sit back relax and learn how many stomachs a cow has and what is the reason behind it.

How Many Stomachs Does A Cow Have

How Many Stomachs Do Cows Have?

The answer to the aforementioned question is that all the cows possess four stomachs. Yes, you heard it right; there are four stomachs in every single cow, regardless of their breed. Every single stomach of the cow that is present inside her stomach has its unique process, which will be explained later in the article. One more reason behind the cows having four stomachs is that they belong to a category known as Ruminants.

Now you know the answer of the question about the number of the stomach a cow possesses. As informed earlier that every stomach has its unique process, so do you know what those unique processes are. To understand those unique processes, we will have to look into the complete anatomy of the cows’ stomach. So let us take the tour of it and understand deeply about the same.

The Anatomy Of Cow’s Stomach

As informed earlier that a cow has four stomachs inside her and every stomach has its unique process to perform. The name of each part is The Rumen, The Reticulum, The Omasum, and The Abomasum. Now, let us have a deeper look into each one of them.

The Omasum

It is one of those parts inside the cow’s body that acts as a filter. For Omasum, it does not matter what a cow eats. Every single thing has to pass through the Omasum and then only the process of digestion will start with the filtered food. The ‘cud’ that is formed has to be broken down and pressed completely and properly before it can go for the process of digestion.

The Rumen

The Rumen is the largest part of a cow’s stomach. The capacity of the Rumen is around 50 gallons. It means that the Rumen can easily hold around 50 gallons of food inside it. However, this 50 gallons of food that the Rumen is holding is partially digested. The Rumen is the house of many good bacteria that are present all over inside it. The primary task of these bacteria is to soften the food that has come inside it so that the proper digestion process can be started. Doing so also provide a good quality of protein for the cows.

The Recticulum

The Recticulum is one of the most important parts of cow’s stomach, and you can also call it as the ‘Hardware’ of its stomach. The reason behind calling it the ‘Hardware’ of cow’s stomach is that whatever undesirable the cow consumes; it is digested in this part of the stomach. Some these undesirable food items include fences, plastics, etc. However, the contractions that take place inside the Recticulum can easily force these undesirable objects into the peritoneal cavities. It is also the place where the inflammation of such objects occurs. These cows can sometimes also eat the nails and screws that can easily perforate their hearts. Hence, the Recticulum is an important part of the cows’ stomach.

The Abomasum

The fourth and last chamber inside a cow’s stomach is known as the Abomasum. You may not know, but the Abomasum closely resembles a human stomach in numerous ways. For example, the Abomasum is also connected to the intestines, as a human stomach is connected or attached to the intestines.

Whenever a cow consumes anything, the food after all the cuddling, filtering and following some more processes, enters into the Abomasum where the final digestion starts processing. The food in the Abomasum starts digesting with the help of the juices present inside the stomach of the cow. Once the food is digested with the help of the juices inside the stomach, all the important nutrients present inside the food are transferred to the various parts of the cow’s body, as per the requirement. These nutrients travel inside a cow’s body through the blood streams. After this, whatever part of the food does not get digested, it is converted to the waste form and starts producing a ‘cow-pat’.

We hope that all your doubts about the anatomy of cow’s stomach are clear now. Many of you were not knowing that cows own four stomachs, each for performing different process, as per the requirements. You can also call it as the different stages of digestion of food that a cow consumes. As we all know that cows eat a lot of rubbish, waste, fences, plastics, etc. they definitely need a very strict and unique digestion process, so that all the waste, that is not at all healthy for them to consume can be processed properly and do not cause any kind of harm to their bodies. Cuddling, filtrations, etc. are some of the important processes that help in the digestion of the food; a cow has consumed.

How To Get Rid Of A Stye In Your Eye?

A stye is one of the most common problems that people are getting today. The reasons for the styes can be many, for example, contact of your eyes with the foreign substances, which include dust, the impurity in air, bacteria in the air and many more. Now you may ask how to get rid of a stye in your eye? So, the answer is here presented in this article. Just read on and acquaint yourself with many solutions that you can use to remove stye from your eyes.

how to get rid of a stye in your eye

How To Get Rid Of A Stye In Your Eye?

Now let us understand how you can get rid of this painful stye from your eyes.

Clean Your Stye Carefully

Generally, you can get a stye without any reason. However, sometimes your eyes can come into the contact with foreign substances like makeup or dust, and hence, these can be the reasons behind getting a stye. You may not know, but stye itself is a form of bacterial infection. Therefore, whenever you get a stye, the first thing you need to do is to clean the surrounding area. To do so, follow these steps:

• The first thing you need to do is to wash your hands thoroughly. Once done, with the help of cotton dipped in warm water, gently cleanse the stye. If you do not have cotton, you can go with the special eyelid scrub or shampoo that is diluted and tear-free, for example, baby shampoos.

• Before starting the procedure, make sure that your both hands and the cotton or eyelid scrub is completely clean. Otherwise, if they will not, there are chances of getting more of the germs and debris to the area surrounding the stye.

• The primary reason of causing styes is the staphylococcal bacteria, which can get into the follicle of hair or inside the gland that is present at the corner of an eye. It occurs due to repetitive touching of the eye with the dirty hands. Moreover, certain other bacteria can trigger the stye in your eyes.

Take Help Of Warm Compress

The second method to get the relief in your stye is using the warm compress. It is one of the most effective treatments to get your stye cured. You can make the warm compress with the help of a clean towel or you can even use some other fabric and dip them in warm water. Once dipped, place the compress on your eye and leave it for around five to ten minutes.

• After five to ten minutes, when the compress is cool, dip it again in the warm water and repeat the procedure for almost same time duration.

• Repeat this process twice to thrice in a day. Make sure that you are consistent in performing the process if you want to cure your stye.

• This process is very helpful as it cause your stye to shrink down and release the pus, which is inside it. If you experience pus coming out of stye, gently rinse it. Never squeeze or press the stye, only apply a firm but soft pressure to remove the pus.

• Once the pus is out of your stye, our major problem is solved, and you can experience quick fix in your stye.

Go With The Anti-bacterial Cream

The third option is to go with anti-bacterial cream. You can easily find this anti-bacterial cream over the counter, which are specially made to cure the styes. However, if you are in the dilemma and are not able to land on any decision as which cream is best for you, it is advisable that you discuss with the pharmacist or with your healthcare professional.

• While applying the cream, take a small dab and apply it on the stye. Make sure that it does not enter your eye. The best part of these creams is that they heal the stye very fast. As these creams have local anesthetic, which can provide the temporary relief to your eye. Therefore, it is highly advisable that cream should not enter your eye as these anesthetics can cause significant damage to them.

• If, accidentally, you get any cream inside your eye, flush it out carefully and gently with the help of warm water and instantly contact your doctor or the healthcare professional.

• Always use the recommended dosage as indicated on the packaging.

Home Remedies To Treat Stye

All the above solutions are perfect for treating the stye; however, nothing can beat the home remedies. So, let us have a look on some of the home remedies that will help in curing the stye. Always remember while using the home remedies that they do not enter your eyes, otherwise may cause further damage to your eyes. Moreover, these remedies are not medically proven but are effective in the treatment of styes.

  1. Use the wash of coriander seed. To achieve this, soak a little quantity of coriander seeds in the water for about an hour, strain the seeds and rinse the eyes with the water slowly and properly. Doing so will help in the reduction of swelling in your eyes because it is said that the seeds have the property to reduce swelling.
  2. The second home remedy is to use the Aloe. Aloe is one of the best products that reduce the swelling and redness from our eyes. To use aloe, cut a small piece of aloe leaf lengthwise and use the pulpy area to put it over the affected area. If you are not able to find the aloe leaf, you can also go with the cotton dipped in aloe juice. You can easily find the aloe juice in any pharmacist shop. Moreover, for a better result, you can mix the aloe juice along with the chamomile tea.
  3. You can also use potatoes to get rid of the stye. All you need to do is to convert the potatoes into the paste and spread the paste on a clean and soft cloth properly. Once done, gently and firmly apply the paste over the stye to get the instant comfort.

When Did Albert Einstein Die?

Albert Einstein was a German-born physicist who developed the theory of relativity. He is considered the most influential physicist of the 20th century. But often people wonder as to when did Albert Einstein die? Read this article to know everything about him.


Born in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany in 1879, Albert Einstein developed the special and general theories of relativity. In 1921, he won the Nobel Prize for physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect. Einstein is generally considered the most influential physicist of the 20th century. He died on April 18, 1955, in Princeton, New Jersey.

When Did Albert Einsetin Die

Early Life

Born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany, Albert Einstein grew up in a secular, middle-class Jewish family. His father, Hermann Einstein, was a salesman and engineer who, with his brother, founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie, a company that manufactured electrical equipment in Munich, Germany. His mother, the former Pauline Koch, ran the family household. Einstein had one sister, Maja, born two years after him

Einstein attended elementary school at the Luitpold Gymnasium in Munich. He enjoyed classical music and played the violin. However, he felt alienated and struggled with the rigid Prussian education he received there. He also experienced a speech difficulty, a slow cadence in his speaking where he’d pause to consider what to say next. In later years, Einstein would write about two events that had a marked effect on his childhood. One was an encounter with a compass at age five, where he marveled at the invisible forces that turned the needle. The other was at age 12, when he discovered a book of geometry which he read over and over.

In 1889, the Einstein family invited a poor Polish medical student, Max Talmud to come to their house for Thursday evening meals. Talmud became an informal tutor to young Albert, introducing him to higher mathematics and philosophy. One of the books Talmud shared with Albert was a children’s science book in which the author imagined riding alongside electricity that was traveling inside a telegraph wire. Einstein began to wonder what a light beam would look like if you could run alongside it at the same speed. If light were a wave, then the light beam should appear stationary, like a frozen wave. Yet, in reality, the light beam is moving. This paradox led him to write his first “scientific paper” at age 16, “The Investigation of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields.” This question of the relative speed to the stationary observer and the observer moving with the light was a question that would dominate his thinking for the next 10 years.

In 1894, Hermann Einstein’s company failed to get an important contract to electrify the city of Munich and he was forced to move his family to Milan, Italy. Albert was left at a relative’s boarding house in Munich to finish his education at the Luitpold Gymnasium. Faced with military duty when he turned of age, Albert allegedly withdrew from school, using a doctor’s note to excuse himself and claim nervous exhaustion, making his way to Milan to join his parents. His parents sympathized with his feelings, but were concerned about the enormous problems that he would face as a school dropout and draft dodger with no employable skills.

Fortunately, Einstein was able to apply directly to the Eidgenössische Polytechnische Schule (Swiss Federal Polytechnic School) in Zürich, Switzerland. Lacking the equivalent of a high school diploma, he failed much of the entrance exam but got exceptional marks in mathematics and physics. Because of this, he was admitted to the school provided he completes his formal schooling first. He went to a special high school run by Jost Winteler in Aarau, Switzerland, and graduated in 1896 at age 17. He became lifelong friends with the Winteler family, with whom he had been boarding, and fell in love with Wintelers’ daughter, Marie. At this time, Einstein renounced his German citizenship to avoid military service and enrolled at the Zurich school.

Miracle Year

At the patent office, Albert Einstein evaluated patent applications for electromagnetic devices. He quickly mastered the job, leaving him time to ponder on the transmission of electrical signals and electrical-mechanical synchronization, an interest he had been cultivating for several years. While at the polytechnic school he had studied Scottish physicist James Maxwell’s electromagnetic theories which describe the nature of light, and discovered a fact unknown to Maxwell himself, that the speed of light remained constant. However, this violated Isaac Newton’s laws of motion because there is no absolute velocity in Newton’s theory. This insight led Einstein to formulate the principle of relativity.

In 1905—often called Einstein’s “miracle year”—he submitted a paper for his doctorate and had four papers published in the Annalen der Physik, one of the best known physics journals. The four papers—the photoelectric effect, Brownian motion, special relativity, and the equivalence of matter and energy—would alter the course of modern physics and bring him to the attention of the academic world. In his paper on matter and energy, Einstein deduced the well-known equation E=mc2, suggesting that tiny particles of matter could be converted into huge amounts of energy, foreshadowing the development of nuclear power. There have been claims that Einstein and his wife, Maric, collaborated on his celebrated 1905 papers, but historians of physics who have studied the issue find no evidence that she made any substantive contributions. In fact, in the papers, Einstein only credits his conversations with Michele Besso in developing relativity.

At first, Einstein’s 1905 papers were ignored by the physics community. This began to change when he received the attention of Max Planck, perhaps the most influential physicist of his generation and founder of quantum theory. With Planck’s complimentary comments and his experiments that confirmed his theories, Einstein was invited to lecture at international meetings and he rose rapidly in the academic world. He was offered a series of positions at increasingly prestigious institutions, including the University of Zürich, the University of Prague, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, and finally the University of Berlin, where he served as director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics from 1913 to 1933.

As his fame spread, Einstein’s marriage fell apart. His constant travel and intense study of his work, the arguments about their children and the family’s meager finances led Einstein to the conclusion that his marriage was over. Einstein began an affair with a cousin, Elsa Löwenthal, whom he later married. He finally divorced Mileva in 1919 and as a settlement agreed to give her the money he might receive if he ever won a Nobel Prize.

Theory of Relativity

In November, 1915, Einstein completed the general theory of relativity, which he considered his masterpiece. He was convinced that general relativity was correct because of its mathematical beauty and because it accurately predicted the perihelion of Mercury’s orbit around the sun, which fell short in Newton’s theory. General relativity theory also predicted a measurable deflection of light around the sun when a planet or another sun oribited near the sun. That prediction was confirmed in observations by British astronomer Sir Arthur Eddington during the solar eclipse of 1919. In 1921, Albert Einstein received word that he had received the Nobel Prize for Physics. Because relativity was still considered controversial, Einstein received the award for his explanation of the photoelectric effect.

In the 1920s, Einstein launched the new science of cosmology. His equations predicted that the universe is dynamic, ever expanding or contracting. This contradicted the prevailing view that the universe was static, a view that Einstein held earlier and was a guiding factor in his development of the general theory of relativity. But his later calculations in the general theory indicated that the universe could be expanding or contracting. In 1929, astronomer Edwin Hubble found that the universe was indeed expanding, thereby confirming Einstein’s work. In 1930, during a visit to the Mount Wilson Observatory near Los Angeles, Einstein met with Hubble and declared the cosmological constant, his original theory of the static size and shape of the universe, to be his “greatest blunder.”

While Einstein was touring much of the world speaking on his theories in the 1920s, the Nazis were rising to power under the leadership of Adolph Hitler. Einstein’s theories on relativity became a convenient target for Nazi propaganda. In 1931, the Nazi’s enlisted other physicists to denounce Einstein and his theories as “Jewish physics.” At this time, Einstein learned that the new German government, now in full control by the Nazi party, had passed a law barring Jews from holding any official position, including teaching at universities. Einstein also learned that his name was on a list of assassination targets, and a Nazi organization published a magazine with Einstein’s picture and the caption “Not Yet Hanged” on the cover.

In December, 1932, Einstein decided to leave Germany forever. He took a position a the newly formed Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, New Jersey, which soon became a Mecca for physicists from around the world. It was here that he would spend the rest of his career trying to develop a unified field theory—an all-embracing theory that would unify the forces of the universe, and thereby the laws of physics, into one framework—and refute the accepted interpretation of quantum physics. Other European scientists also fled various countries threatened by Nazi takeover and came to the United States. Some of these scientists knew of Nazi plans to develop an atomic weapon. For a time, their warnings to Washington, D.C. went unheeded.

Not long after he began his career at the Institute in New Jersey, Albert Einstein expressed an appreciation for the “meritocracy” of the United States and the right people had to think what they pleased—something he didn’t enjoy as a young man in Europe. In 1935, Albert Einstein was granted permanent residency in the United States and became an American citizen in 1940. As the Manhattan Project moved from drawing board to testing and development at Los Alamos, New Mexico, many of his colleagues were asked to develop the first atomic bomb, but Einstein was not one of them. According to several researchers who examined FBI files over the years, the reason was the U.S. government didn’t trust Einstein’s lifelong association with peace and socialist organizations. FBI director J. Edgar Hoover went so far as to recommend that Einstein be kept out of America by the Alien Exclusion Act, but he was overruled by the U.S. State Department. Instead, during the war, Einstein helped the U.S. Navy evaluate designs for future weapons systems and contributed to the war effort by auctioning off priceless personal manuscripts. One example was a handwritten copy of his 1905 paper on special relativity which sold for $6.5 million, and is now located in the Library of Congress.

On August 6, 1945, while on vacation, Einstein heard the news that an atomic bomb had been dropped on Hiroshima, Japan. He soon became involved in an international effort to try to bring the atomic bomb under control, and in 1946, he formed the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists with physicist Leo Szilard. In 1947, in an article that he wrote for The Atlantic Monthly, Einstein argued that the United States should not try to monopolize the atomic bomb, but instead should supply the United Nations with nuclear weapons for the sole purpose of maintaining a deterrent.

Final Years

On April 17, 1955, while working on a speech he was preparing to commemorate Israel’s seventh anniversary, Einstein suffered an abdominal aortic aneurysm and experienced internal bleeding. He was taken to the University Medical Center at Princeton for treatment, but refused surgery, believing that he had lived his life and was content to accept his fate. “I want to go when I want,” he stated at the time. “It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly.” Einstein died at the university medical center early the next morning—April 18, 1955—at the age of 76.

During the autopsy, Thomas Stoltz Harvey removed Einstein’s brain, seemingly without the permission of his family, for preservation and future study by doctors of neuroscience. His remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered in an undisclosed location. After decades of study, Einstein’s brain is now located at the Princeton University Medical Center.

How To Stop A Dog From Peeing In The House?

Dog peeing inside the house can be quite an annoying habit. This is one of the most common problems that most dog owners face. Since any dog can be affected with this issue, be it a potty trained dog which used to pee outdoors, or a new untrained puppy. Several factors may be involved. This article gives you a comprehensive outline of the problem, and explains ways on how to stop a dog from peeing in the house.

1. Why Do Dogs Pee Inside The House?

How To Stop A Dog From Peeing In The House

     As mentioned in the introductory part, there are several causes for dogs urinating inside the house. Since the way you overcome the issue depends on the cause, you need to know these causative agents. These include medical issues, submissive peeing after being scolded, territorial marking, and incontinence (in case of aged dogs).

2. Medical Conditions

    Various medical conditions can cause your dog to do the unhealthy habit inside the house or at other improper locations. You need to first rule out any medical issue that your dog has. Medical issues that may lead your dog to urinate at any location include bladder infections, stomach upset, incontinence or dietary changes. So, you have to have him checked by a vet to ensure that an underlying medical issue isn’t a causative agent. Medical issues are the most probable reason why your house trained dog is lately exhibiting that inappropriate behavior. Some of the common medical issues that lead your dog to urinate indoors are discussed below.

  • Bacterial Bladder Infection

Bacterial bladder infection or stones in the bladder can increase the urination frequency, cause strain during urination, and at times, lead to blood in urine. Ultrasound or radiographs will be used to diagnose bladder stones. Bacterial infection is diagnosed by urine culture, sensitivity tests, and urinalysis.

  • Urinary Incontinence

Dogs with urinary incontinence will dribble urine while at sleep or when they are awake. This is a common medical condition in spayed female dogs. It has been found that about 13 to 20% of spayed female dogs suffer from this kind of disorder. Several physical problems contribute to urinary incontinence in dogs. These include reduced sphincter control, urethral sphincter incompetence, ectopic ureters, patent urachus, ureterovaginal fistula, idiopathic detrusor, pelvic bladder, ureterocele, vaginal urine pooling, paxadoxical incontinence, and nerve or spinal cord damages.

Urinary incontinence in dogs is diagnosed by urinalysis and contrast studies. CT scans, cystoscopic studies, radiographs, abdominal ultrasound, etc may be used for identifying anatomic abnormalities.

  • Increased Urine Production

Increased urine production or polyuria is common in dogs. Many factors contribute to this medical condition. These include decreased appetite, increased water intake, weight loss, renal disease, Fanconi’s Syndrome, pyometra, polycythemia, chronic renal failure, liver disease, pyelonephritis, diabetes mellitus, hyperadrenocroticism, diabetes insipidus, hyperthyroidism, hypokalemia, hypercalcemia, diuretics, exogenous steroids, anti-convulsants. Diagnosis includes urinalysis, blood tests, vaginal examination, contrast radiography.

  • Territorial Marking

Another reason why your dog may be urinating indoors is for marking certain areas as his territory. Territorial marking is said to be more observed in dogs that are dominant or that do not see their master as the leader. Instead of urinating in large puddles on the floor, your dog pees a small amount usually on vertical surfaces like on a table leg, door, or piece of furniture. The dog lifts one of his hind legs and marks urine on such surfaces. He often marks on different or new surfaces. He also may mark those objects that he feels that belongs to him or anything that he has become possessive about.

If your dog is marking his territories with urine, it is not an issue to be house-trained; instead it is an issue concerning his instinctive behaviors. Your house-trained dog leaves his urine’s scent as a mark, rather than due to his urge to pee. For him, the smell of his urine is of great interest unlike us human beings. He leaves the scent of his urine to leave his fellow dogs with a message. This message can be any of the following: his territory, his mating availability, or his social order. Usually dogs who have feelings of insecurity or who suffer from separation anxiety display this habit in order to build their confidence levels.

3. How To Stop A Dog From Peeing In The House?

It has been observed that dogs which have been spayed or neutered at an early age do not get involved in the territory marking habit. So, if your dog is young, have him spayed. Often only the un-castrated male dogs do more urine marking in comparison with their castrated counterparts. Even female dogs do it, but not as often as the male dogs. It has been observed that the female dogs in heat or just before heat, leave their urine scent in order to mark their mating availability. Dominant female dogs also mark with urine. However, it has been observed that the house-trained female dogs do not mark inside the house.

It has also been seen that smaller dog breeds involve in urinary marking than the larger ones. So, you can go for larger breeds to prevent this issue.

Further, if more than one dog live in your house, they may urine mark often as they start considering each other as competition. As mentioned earlier, this habit is connected to their dominance issue. Thus, your dog which has never before urinated inside your house may start the habit upon the introduction of a second dog into your house. Obedience training is required for your pet. This will let him know that he should not establish his dominance where submissiveness is required.

Dogs also develop a feeling of a perceived threat or insecurity upon the introduction of a visitor, a new pet, a new baby, a new furniture piece, or even the odor of another animal on your clothing. This in turn leads him to the need to mark his territory. If this is the case, you need to reassure him that he is still a part of the family and that he is loved a lot. You can prove the love by showering him with loads of your attention in the presence of the object or person whom he thinks is foreign.

Sometimes, your dog who does not urinate in your house may urinate at your friend’s or relative’s house. This is because he feels less secure out there. You can therefore try to make the place more comfortable for him by offering objects that are familiar to him.

You also need to understand that a castrated and house trained dog may also urinate at times, and under some circumstances. But this doesn’t mean that he will continue doing this habit regularly. He just may do it once or twice, and then return back to normalcy.

4. What Are The Other Means To Stop A Dog From Peeing In Your House?

The following means are helpful in stopping your dog from peeing in your house if he is displaying the habit as submissive peeing, territorial marking, or incontinence.

  • Catch Him Before The Act

Dogs usually circle around, sniff the ground or cockle a leg before they pee. As soon as you notice them performing any of these acts, startle them mildly to disrupt them from doing their part. You can do by just clapping your hands or shaking a coke bottle filled with coins (you have to have this prepared well ahead!). This will be sufficient to gain his attention and to stop him from peeing. Immediately, take him out of your house so that he can pee where it is appropriate. After he relieves himself, praise him generously for peeing in the designated area. This will help him learn that peeing outside the house is approved and appreciated.

  • Catching Him During The Act

If you are not able to predict when your dog will urinate, the next best thing you can do is to catch him while he is at it. Again, you will immediately have to gain his attention with a cloud clap that would startle him enough to temporarily stop his act. Then, you need to take him out to finish the act. After the process, praise him. Gradually, he will start associating your praises with his outdoor peeing, and loud startling claps for peeing indoors. This will help him learn where it is appropriate to pee.

  • Praise Your Dog For Outdoor Peeing Always

Praising is a great dog training tool. Praising him at the correct time is necessary for ushering in a desirable behavior change in him.

  • Removing The Odor Of Urine From Your House

Removing the odor of the dog’s urine from your house is one of the most effective ways to discourage your dog from peeing indoors. Since dogs have a keen sense of smell, even if you can’t smell anything, chances are there that he can. Your dog doesn’t want to pee in his den, and so is the same with your house too. But, it is a habit for him to pee in the same area where he had done earlier. He may want to continue the habit. So, clean his urine very well that no trace of its odor is left for your dog to smell. Instead of using an ammonia-based cleaning product, use an enzyme-based one. Enzyme cleaners are better at eradicating the urine odor completely. Furthermore, give your carpets and floors a thorough cleaning with the right product, instead of spot cleaning. Though this method takes some added effort, this will help in resetting your dog’s behavior.

  • Habits To Avoid

Here are a few things that you have to avoid doing in an effort to stop your dog from peeing in the house. Do not rub your dog’s nose on his urine to knock some sense into him. Dog owners often say that they use this measure for reinforcing the right peeing behavior in their dogs. But it is an extremely very ineffective one. This is because, your dog mostly will not understand what wrong he has done or why you are doing it. This renders it a negative and needless punishment. What’s worse is, your dog may start fearing you. This can in turn worsen the problem – he may start peeing in the other places of your house.

Further, punishing your dog after he has committed the act is simply useless and an utter waste of time. This is because he will not understand the reason. Therefore, the key to successful housetraining is catching your dog either before or while he is at the act.

5. How To Stop A Dog From Peeing In The House?

If your dog suffers from separation anxiety, he may pee while you have gone out of your house. He pees due to his anxious feeling of being left alone. So, the next time you go out, leave a belonging of yours that bears your smell. It can be your foot wear, clothing, or an accessory. This will be enough to settle his anxiety.

If the above method doesn’t work with your dog, you can take him to a veterinary behaviorist who will address the issue. He can deal with your dog’s anxiety to help him obtain a more stable emotional condition which will reduce the number of accidental peeing inside the house.

Your dog can also get anxious due to the outdoor conditions. If your dog suffers from noise phobia, he may get threatened at the sound of fireworks, thunderstorms, traffic, construction, etc. He may not leave the house at all during this time, which may result in his peeing indoors. In such times, try to create a relaxing environment for your dog inside your house. You can also keep him occupied with soothing music and food.

Rounding it all up, a dog peeing indoors is not an uncommon issue. Even house trained dogs at times display this habit. However, this issue can be modified with behavioral training and other methods. The methods discussed in the article are some effective practical ones to help your dog in this matter. All the best!



How To Plant A Vegetable Garden?

I had always envied the vegetable gardens created by my friends and relatives in their backyards till I did not know how to plant a vegetable garden. Recently, I have been romancing with nature, along with growing some nutritious vegetables for my family. I am sure; even you are looking out for such fun and useful activity. Trust me! Once you know some basics about vegetable garden plantation, it is very easy to create your own. Let’s get started.

Benefits Of Growing Your Own Vegetable Garden

how to plant a vegetable garden

  • You can provide your family with organic, fresh and nutritious vegetables.
  • The vegetables grown at home will cost you less than the ones you buy.
  • You are helping to preserve the environment by reducing the transporting and warehousing aspects.
  • Not only you, but your family too will be engaged in learning about nature.
  • Your meals will be personalised and you will become more innovative.
  • Your children will have a priceless memory for their whole life-time.

Which Vegetables To Plant In The Garden

In the beginning, you might get carried away by the idea of vegetable plantation at home and might end up doing things in excess. Well, let us be reasonable and start on a small scale. This will prevent us from wasting the food. Before planting, we should take into consideration how much quantity of vegetables our family consumes. Once you have known this, you can think over growing following vegetables:


Slicing tomatoes can be grown easily and are used in various food preparations like burgers, sandwiches, sauces etc. ‘Brandywine’, ‘Celebrity’ and ‘Better Boy’ are some popular varieties, which you can get from local nurseries or online.

Bell Peppers

Bell peppers are very popular among the sweet peppers grown at home. They can turn red, yellow, purple etc. on ripening. Hot and long growing season is the most preferable one for these peppers. Some of the most popular varieties are ‘Sweet Banana’, ‘Purple Beauty’ and ‘California Wonder’.

Hot Peppers

Hot peppers are very important taste imparters. One tree can yield a great number of peppers during a single growing season. You can grow any variety of your choice like cayenne, jalapenos, anchos, anaheims and habanero peppers.


Cucumbers can be easily grown. They can bear too much of heat. Cucumbers grow as vines and also on the bushes. They grow in a sufficient quantity to feed a family of four and still be shared with some friends. Cucumbers are widely used in salads. Cucumber seeds that are planted in late spring or after the last frost, give very good quality cucumbers.

Green Peas

Green peas are a must to enhance the color and texture of your platter. They require cold and moist weather to grow. ‘Dwarf Gray Sugar’ is a popular variety amongst the home-grown peas.


While talking about easily growing and nutritious vegetables, we cannot forget spinach. Spinach is a late summer crop and can be harvested in fall. ‘Olympia’ is a widely grown variety of spinach.


Basil is a herb and is very easy to grow. It complements tomato like no other herb does. It has a spicy and tangy taste and many medicinal properties. You can add basil to sauces, soups, salads etc. ‘Genoveses’, lime basil and Thai basil are some of the popular varieties grown.


Beans can be grown very easily. They are a perfect choice for the beginners. They germinate quickly and in large numbers. They are high on the nutrition quotient too. ‘Provider’ is a good variety to try.


Carrots of different colors can be grown. They are tolerant to frost and are resistant to many pests. ‘Bolero’, ‘Thumberline’ and ‘Nantesa Superior’ are some popular varieties of carrots.


You may find difficulty growing cabbage. Cabbage requires cold temperatures and is more prone to pest attacks. So, proper care is advisable. ‘Stone Head’, ‘Primo’ and ‘Golden Acre’ are some quick yielding varieties.

After knowing about some easy growing varieties, you’ll be curious to know how to have proper soil for your vegetables.

Soil Building And Important Tips:

  • Soil is the most important factor in plantation, whether it is vegetables, flowers or any other plant species. So pay special attention on the quality of the soil. Soil should be rich in nutrients and deep.
  • Raised beds can help in gaining more nutrients, as they provide deep layers of fertile soil. Raised beds reduce the weeding problems. They also help in faster growth of vegetables.
  • Keep your raised beds rounded from top, rather than flat. This technique is very space-efficient.
  • Arrangement of plants also plays a key role in the amount of yield. Instead of planting your vegetables in square or row patterns, plant them in triangle patterns. This will help you to utilize the space more efficiently. Remember, this doesn’t mean that you have to plant your vegetables very closely. This can negatively affect your plantations.
  • Plant varieties like tomatoes, peas, melons, squash etc. which can grow vertical. Their maintenance and harvest is easy. They are not easily attacked by fungus.
  • Compatible plantation is also a good technique. The vegetables support the growth of other vegetables in some way or the other. Some of the widely used combinations are corn, beans and squash; tomato, basil and onions; carrots, onions and radishes; lettuce and peas etc.
  • You can grow more crops in your garden through succession planting. This technique lets you grow many types of vegetables in a single growing season like lettuce can be followed by corn, which can be followed by garlic or more green vegetables. Remember, every time you re-plant, you should replenish the soil with some compost.
  • You can alter the temperature for your plantations by using blankets, mulches, cold-frames, cloches, row covers, black plastic etc. This will render you some extra weeks of production for your plantations.

Stop Diseases And Pests

  • Water should be poured in the soil and not over the leaves. This will prevent fungal attack. If still your plant gets infested with fungus, throw it away to save other plants.
  • You can remove large insects and caterpillars manually, by picking with hands. For protection from tiny insects, use row-covers.
  • Use fences to protect your plants from rabbit, deer and other animals.
  • Control insects and bugs using insecticidal sprays. Make sure they are not harmful, in terms of consumption.

These were some basic tips for the beginners. I hope you will find these useful and be successful in your new adventure. After all, nothing tastes better than the vegetables grown and nurtured by one’s own efforts. Best wishes for planting your own vegetable garden. Please write to us about your experiences and useful tips. Together we shall create a green and healthy society.

How To Get Grease Out Of Clothes?

After having a blast in last night’s party or after repairing your car on an outing or after massaging your baby with body-oil, some of us are left with a situation which demands us thinking about – how to get grease out of clothes? I am sure even you are really upset about your favorite dress or shirt being stained with oil and are here to look out for an easy solution to remove grease from clothes. Don’t worry! I have brought some fantastic tips for you on how to get grease out of clothes. Let’s get started:

How To Get Grease Stains Out Of Clothes?

How To Get Grease Out Of Clothes

1. Shampoo

Surprised? If you can use it to rinse off the oil in your hair, then why not on your clothes! Just take a little bit of shampoo and rub it on the grease stains, leave for few minutes and wash it off. This technique has always worked wonders with me.

2. Corn Starch and Dish wash detergent

Place your cloth on a surface and sprinkle some corn starch over the stain of grease. It should be left to settle quite for some time, say about 30-60 minutes. Then, rub the dish wash soap on the stain. Rub in circular motions, that way the grease comes out with less effort. Using an old tooth-brush or nail brush, for rubbing the stain is better.

3. Baby Powder

We all relish fry foods and love to cook them with our own style. But the oil that splashes on our clothes gets cooked up in the kitchen, due to the ambient heat. So easiest way to get rid of the oil on your clothes is to sprinkle some baby powder on the stain and dab it well. Rub with a brush till the marks are gone or fade considerably. Then, wash off the cloth.

4. Chalk

Did you imagine that even a writing chalk can be useful to remove grease from clothes? For this technique, you just have to rub some chalk on the grease spot. Let the chalk absorb the oil or grease and then brush it. Wash the piece of cloth and wear that stainless garment again. You can use this technique, even to remove the dirt on the collar of your shirts. Its easy, cheap and effective.

5. Salt and alcohol

Salt and alcohol can be just rubbed thoroughly on the grease stains and they will leave your clothes stain-free, after being washed. You can use this tip not only for your clothes, but also for your carpets and rugs.

6. Baking Soda

When it comes to cleaning things, baking soda is a must to be tried on. Cover your grease stains with baking soda. Leave it for about 6 hours. Wash off your cloth and you will see the stains vanished. Baking soda can also be used to remove grease stains from your stove and wallpapers.

7. Shaving Cream

Well, my friends! Even shaving cream can be used to clean the spots of grease from clothes or carpets. You just have to apply some shaving cream on the stains, let it dry and then wash your cloth. The stains will go away.

8. Hair-spray

Like some of you, I never used hair-spray for my hair. So I did not even have one, at my home. But few months back, a friend of mine suggested me to use it to remove grease stains from clothes. Since then, I always make it a point to keep a bottle of hair-spray at home. For this, you just have to spray a generous amount of hair-spray on the grease marks. Then just wash the cloth and let it air-dry for best results.

9. WD-40

If grease stains come from garage, then even the solution has to come from garage. We all know, WD-40 can be used for numerous tasks. Then, removing stains is also one of its uses. Also, most of us keep it in our garage. You just have to spray the grease stain with WD-40 and let it stay for 30-40 minutes. Then brush the stain with a little dish soap and wash it.

10. Vinegar

In a bowl, take equal quantities of vinegar and water. Damp a cotton swab or cloth in this solution. Then wipe the grease stain with this. The stains will be removed. For better results, wash the stained cloth after doing this process.

11. Waterless Mechanics’ Soap

This is basically a dry soap and there are several brands available in market. You just have to rub this soap over the stain for few minutes, till it penetrates into the stain, completely. This soap has grease-cutting properties. So leave it for 30 minutes and it will break down the stain. Repeat, if desired results are not achieved. Finally, wash as per the directions and then air dry.

12. Coca-Cola

If we can drink Coca-Cola for our food to get digested, then same principle applies to the grease stain. Oil stains should be broken using it. Pour some Coca-Cola on the grease stains, leave it for 1-2 hours, wash and air dry. This will rinse-off the stains. Now, you’ll be thinking about the new stains this drink will leave on your clothes. Don’t worry! They’ll easily be removed by a wash if not left unattended for more than 2 hours.

13. Aloe Vera

Firstly, you have to soak the stained part of your cloth in water for some time. Then rub some Aloe Vera gel on the grease spots and wash it well. The oil stains will go away.

14. Toothpaste

Toothpaste works great in removing oil stains, especially on cotton fabrics. Apply some toothpaste on the oil stains and rub them gently with a brush. Wash the cloth and the stains will be removed.

Next time, when will be eating out like a glutton or cooking his favorite dish to your hubby or becoming a mechanic for your car or massaging your baby out of love or just being a carefree soul- your joy will not be suppressed by the thought of staining out your clothes. I hope, our 14 easy tips remove to get rid of grease from clothes, will help you have stain-free clothes. If you have some more tips or want to share your experiences about our tips, do write to us.

Why Are Polar Bears Endangered?

According to the definition, endangered species are those living creatures which are seriously at the risk of extinction. Polar bears are one such species that have been declared to be threatened, by the Endangered Species Act, since 2008. Polar bears are the first animals that made to the list endangered species, due to the problem of Global warming. In this article, we shall learn about – Why Are Polar Bears Endangered?

 Why Are Polar Bears Endangered

Where Do The Polar Bears Live?

The scientific name of a polar bear is Ursus maritimus. It is the only type of bear that is recognised as a marine mammal. Polar bears live in the Northern Hemisphere which is the Arctic region of North America and Eurasia. They can live on land and the ice of the sea. The countries in which they are found generally are Greenland (Denmark), Norway, Russia and Canada. They are also found in the state of Alaska in the U.S.A.

What Is The Scientific Classification Of Polar Bears?

Kingdom – Animalia
Phylum     – Chordata
Class         – Mammalia
Order         – Carnivora
Family       – Ursidae
Genus       – Ursus
Species       – Ursus maritimus

How Did The Polar Bears Evolve?

According to the recent researches, it is believed that polar bears evolved in the time span from 3.5 to 6 million years ago. They separated from their common brown bear ancestors. Over the years, they adapted themselves to live in the extremely cold climate of polar region of Northern Hemisphere.

What Is The Size Of A Polar Bear?

Polar bears are giant animals. Adult males weigh between three hundred fifty kilograms to six hundred kilograms or more. Adult females are comparatively smaller. They weigh between one hundred fifty kilograms to two hundred ninety five kilograms. Generally, their body length is between 2 to 2.5 metres.

What Is The Life-Span Of Polar Bears?

Life-span of polar bears is 15 to 18 years, on an average. Some polar bears can also reach up to the ages of mid 30s.

What Are The Reasons For Survival Of Polar Bears In The Arctic Climate?

Polar bears are adapted to live in the arctic environment, where the temperature falls up to -45 degree Celsius. Polar bears are covered by 2 fur layers, which keep them warm. When they are getting proper food and healthy surrounding, they also develop a thick layer of fats over their bodies. Polar bears have compact ears and tiny tails. So the heat loss from their bodies is very less.

Polar bears have feet covered with fur. Their feet also have papillae (small bumps) that prevent them from slipping. They are very sensitive to smell and can detect seals very easily. Their claws are very powerful and specially adapted to hunt for the seals from the sea.

What Do The Polar Bears Eat?

Polar bears are carnivorous animals. They are very skilled hunters on land, as well as in sea. Their habitat has plenty of seals. So they depend mostly on the seals for their food. They can eat both ringed and bearded seals. If available, polar bears also eat the sea birds and their eggs. They also scavenge for dead animals in the sea like walrus and small whales. After eating, the fur and the skin of polar bear turn a little reddish. Baby polar bears are not good hunters. So they are fed hunted food by their mothers up to the age of 2 to 3 years.

What Is The Current Population Of Polar Bears?

The exact population of polar bears cannot be traced as they are spread over various countries. The current estimation says that their population is 21,000 to 25,000. Their population and survival depends on many facts like environmental pollution, climate change, global warming and loss of habitat by human activities.

Why Are Polar Bears Endangered?

Polar bears are right at the top of the food chain. They consume the seals from the sea and prevent their over population. In past years, there has been a huge development in the oil and gas sectors, in the region of the habitat of polar bears. Actually, the baby polar bears are raised in these areas. So it is a great hurdle for the baby polar bears to reach adulthood.

Global warming has affected the habitat of polar bears massively. The change in temperature is very rapid in the Arctic region, compared to any other place. This is because of the global warming. The ice cap is shrinking constantly. The arctic ice has started to melt and the ocean water has started exposing to the sunlight. This has an ill effect on the feeding cycle of the polar bears. Their breeding and habitat is also adversely affected. Hence, there will be a gradual extinction of polar bears, due to the degradation of their natural habitat. If this rate of global warming continues, most of the ice in the region of the Arctic will melt, by the end of this century. Hence, the polar bears will also be extinct.

What Are The Mating And Reproduction Seasons Of Polar Bears?

In April or May, the polar bears feed heavily and then mate. After mating, the females dig dens in mountain slopes or hills, around the sea shores, in late October or early November. The cubs are born in these dens, in November or December.

At the time of the birth, the cubs are 30 to 35 centimeters in length. They weigh between half to 1 kilogram. Surprisingly, they are blind at the time of the birth. They are without tooth and have short fur. So they are completely dependent on their mothers for food and warmth. The cubs grow rapidly due to the rich calorie content in their mother’s milk. Birth of twin cubs is very common in polar bears. The cubs live with their mothers for about 2.5 years.

How Can A Common People Help In The Conservation Of Polar Bears?

  • Use public transport systems, as much as possible. You can also walk or ride bicycles.
  • Buy fuel efficient vehicles or rather, drive less.
  • Use water wisely.
  • Conserve power by turning off equipments, when not in use. You can also replace old equipments with power efficient equipments.
  • Support the research and organizations working towards the betterment of polar bears and other wildlife.
  • Buy product from the companies that are using eco-friendly methods.
  • Educate your family and friends about wildlife and its conservation.

Some Polar Bear Facts To Know:

  • Polar bears can hibernate partially.
  • Polar bears are not albino.
  • Polar bears are solitary. They do not hunt in groups.
  • Polar bears do not hunt humans, generally, as they are not their natural prey. But there are various cases when they have killed humans.
  • The polar bears move to land in summers, when the ice mass is thinner.
  • Polar bears never eat penguins because polar bears live in the arctic region, while penguins live in the Antarctic region.
  • Only female polar bears can be tracked. The neck of male polar bears is wider than their heads. So the collars that have to be tied on the necks, for tracking, fall off very easily. Hence, male polar bears cannot be tracked.